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C (Ascorbic acid) -This vitamin is used for collagen production, bone and tooth formation, healing, digestion, red blood cell formation, infection and shock resistance, iodine conservation, and protection against vitamin oxidation.

CAFB - The Canadian Amateur Federation of Bodybuild-ers, the sports federation responsible in Canada for ad-ministering amateur bodybuilding for men, women, and mixed pairs. The CAFB is one of the more than 120 national bodybuilding federations affiliated internation-ally with the IFBB.

Calcium (Ca) - This mineral is used for bone and tooth formation, muscle growth and contraction, blood clotting, heart rhythm, and nerve transmission and tranquilizing.

Calories - The unit for measuring the energy value of foods.

Carbohydrates - Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, cellulose) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods.

Cardiovascular (CV) - A term encompassing the heart and blood vessels as a unified system in the body. The CV delivers nutrients (oxygen and energy compounds) to the tissues, removes waste products from tissues, and aids the regulation of body temperature by routing blood flow to/from the skin.

Cardiorespiratory Fitness - Physical fitness of the heart, circulatory system and lungs that is indicative of good aerobic fitness.

Cardiovascular Training - Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels.

Carnitine - An amino acid which encourages the body to burn stored fat for energy rather than carbohydrates.

Casey Viator - Holds the record for the youngest Mr. America.

Catabolism - The destruction of complex components into smaller components - such as the breakdown of muscle tissue or the release of energy from ATP.

Chalk Powder - Used on hands for secure grip.

Charles Atlas - Muscle man of Dynamic Tension fame.

Cheating - A method of pushing a muscle to keep working far past the point at which it would normally fail to continue contracting due to excessive fatigue buildup. In cheating you will use a self-administered body swing, jerk, or otherwise poor exercise form once you have reached the failure point to take some of the pressure off the muscles and allow them to continue a set for two or three repetitions past failure.

Chinning Bar - A bar attached high on the wall or gym ceiling, on which you can do chins, hanging leg raises, and other movements for your upper body. A chinning bar is analogous to the high bar male gymnasts use in national and international competitions.

Cholesterol - A type of fat that, although most widely known as a "bad fat" implicated in promoting heart disease and stroke, is a vital component in the production of many hormones in the body. There are different types of cholesterol: namely, MDL and LDL (MDL being the "good" form and LDL being the "had" form).

Choline - This vitamin is used for fat and cholesterol metabolism, nerve transmission, lecithin formation, and liver and gall bladder regulation.

Chris Dickerson - Bodybuilder and Mr Olympia 1982.

Chromium - A mineral important in the metabolism of sugars and insulin production. Recent studies have shown that this mineral taken in 200 mcg (.2mg) daily will greatly increase lean body mass while decreasing fat.

Circuit Training - Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises on each apparatus, to keep pulse rate high and promote overall fitness.

CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid) - one of the three fatty acids found in fish oil.

Clean - The movement of raising a barbell or two dumb-bells from the floor to your shoulders in one smooth motion to prepare for an overhead lift. To properly exe-cute a clean movement, you must use the coordinated strength of your legs, back, shoulders, and arms.

Clean diet - This refers to eating nutrient-rich, low-fat meals.

Clean and Jerk - Olympic lift where weight is raised from floor to overhead in 2 movements).

Colorado Experiment - A study conducted by Arthur Jones where Casey Viator had a muscle gain of 63 pounds in only 28 days.

Collagen - The main protein constituent of connective tissue and of the organic substance of bones.

Collar - The clamp that is used to hold plates securely in place on a barbell or dumbbell bar. The cylindrical metal clamps are held in place on the bar by means of a set screw threaded through the collar and tightened securely against the bar. Inside collars keep plates from sliding inward and injuring your hands, while outside collars keep plates from sliding off the barbell in the middk of an exercise.

Compound Training - Sometimes called "giant sets"; doing 34 exercises for same muscle, one after other, with minimal rest in between.

Copper (Cu) -This mineral controls oxidation of vitamin C, collagen, elastin, bone, hemoglobin, and red blood cell formation; and the body's healing processes.

CoQ10 (Coenzyme Q10) - A molecule that controls oxygen flow within cells and acts as a catalyst in the creation of energy.

Cory Everson - Ms Olympia 1984, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988 and 1989.

Couples' Competition - A relatively new form of body-building competition in which man-woman teams com-pete against others with particularly appealing posing routines featuring adagio and other dance movements and lifts. More frequently called "Mixed Pairs Competition," this event is rapidly gaining international popularity with the bodybuilding community and general public, and is held in both amateur and professional World Championships.

Concentric - The lifting phase of an exercise, when the muscle shortens or contracts. For example, When you lift the weight in a bench press, press-ing it from your chest to the lock-out position, that's the concentric, or "positive," phase of the exercise.

Creatine - A substance derived from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine.

Creatine monohydrate - A molecule of creatine with a molecule of water attached.

Creatine phosphate - Creatine and phosphate combined in a chemical bond.

Creatinine - The metabolic breakdown product of creatine.

Crunches - Abdominal~ exercises - sit-ups done lying on floor with legs on bench, hands behind neck.

Curl-Bar - Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.

Cut Up (or Cut) - A term used to denote a bodybuilder who has an extremely high degree of muscular definition due to a low degree of body fat.

Cybergenics - Bodybuilding system of workout, diet and supplements.

Cytochrome C - A chemical compound composed of amino acids and iron which acts as a carrier of oxygen with the mitochondria. Allows for more oxygen uptake by the cells, thus prolonging endurance.

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