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Samir Bannout - Mr Olympia 1983 known as the Lion of Lebanon.

Saturated fats - These are 4bad" fats. They are called saturated because they contain no open spots on their carbon skeletons. These bad fats have been shown to raise cholesterol levels in the body. Sources of these fats include animal foods and hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as margarine.

Selenium (Se) - Prevents or slows aging caused by antioxidants. Keeps youthful elasticity in tissues.

Serge Nubret - The Black Panther bodybuilder.

Sergio Oliva - The Myth and three time IFBB Mr. Olympia 1967, 1968 and 1966.

Set - Group of reps (lifting and lowering a weight) of an exercise after which you take a brief rest period. For example, if you complete 10 reps, set the weight down, complete eight more reps, set the weight down again, and repeat for six more reps, you have completed three sets of the exercise.

Shark Cartilage - Contains mucopolysaccharides which may cause anti-angiogenic action that has been shown to be effective in preventing the formation of some solid tumors after extended use. May stimulate immune system functioning.

Shawn Ray - An exceptionally genetically gifted bodybuilder who competed in over 30 professional bodybuilding competitions.

Sleeve - The hollow metal tube fit over the bar on most exercise barbell and dumbbell sets. This sleeve makes it easier for the bar to rotate in your hands as you do an exercise. Spotters - Training partners who stand by to act as safety helpers when you perform such heavy exercises as squats and bench presses. If you get stuck under the weight or begin to lose control of it, spotters can rescue you and prevent needless injuries.

Slow-Twitch - Muscle cells that contract slowly, are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities such as long-distance running, cycling or swimming.

Smilax - A chemical substance derived from the Sarsaparilla plant said to boost natural testosterone levels in the body.

Snatch - Olympic lift where weight is lifted from floor to overhead, (with arms extended) in one continuous movement.

Sodium (Na) - This mineral is used for cellular fluid balance, and muscle retractions.

Spot - Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise.

Spotter - Person who watches a partner closely to see if any help is needed during a specific exercise.

Steroids - Prescription drugs which mimic male hormones, but without most of the androgenic side effects of actual testosterone. Many bodybuilders use these dangerous drugs to help increase muscle mass and strength.

Sterols - Plant hormones usually isolated from crude germ oils which aid the body in hormone production in fat metabolism.

Steve Michalik - Known as the the phantom bodybuilder.

Steve Reeves - Natural bodybuilder and star of Hercules movies.

Sticking Point - A stalling out of bodybuilding progress.

Straight Sets - Groups of repetitions (SETS) interrupted by only brief pauses (30-90 seconds).

Strength - The ability of a muscle to produce maximum amount of force.

Strength Training - Using resistance weight training to build maximum muscle force.

Stretching - A type of exercise program in which you assume exaggerated postures that stretch muscles, joints, and connective tissues, hold these positions for several seconds, relax and then repeat the postures. Regular stretching exercise promotes body flexibility.

Stretch Marks - Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than skin can grow.

Striations - Grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin, the ultimate degree of muscle definition.

Succinates - Vital nutrients that are important metabolic activators, especially in the production of ATP, an energy compound.

Sulfur (S) - This mineral is used for body tissue formation and collagen synthesis.

Super Set - Alternating back and forth between two exercises until the prescribed number of sets is complete.

Supplement - This is a term used to describe a preparation such as a tablet, pill, or powder that contains nutrients. Supplements are used to help you achieve optimal nutrient intake.

Symmetry - The shape or general outline of a person's body, as when seen in silhouette. If you have good sym-metry, you will have relatively wide shoulders, flaring lats, a small waist-hip structure, and generally small joints.

Synergism - The joint action of agents so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.

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