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D

D - This vitamin is used for metabolism of calcium and phosphorous, maintenance of nervous system, blood clotting, heart action, skin respiration and bone formation.

Dan Duchaine - Bodybuilder and Steroid Guru.

Dan Lurie - Bodybuilding pioneer and America's most muscular man.

Dead Lift - One of three powerlifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor to approximately waist height. Lifter must stand erect, shoulders back.

Deficiency - A sub optimal level of one or more nutrients that are essential for good health, most often seen with vitamins. A deficiency can be caused by poor nutrition. increased bodily demands (especially from intense train-ing), or both.

Definition - The absence of fat over clearly delineated muscular movement. Definition is often referred to as "muscularity," and a highly defined bodybuilder has so little body fat that very fine grooves of muscularity called "striations" will be clearly visible over each major muscle group.

Dehydration - A net reduction of water in the body. Dehydration occurs via water removal (e.g. sweating, urine production) and/or inadequate fluid intake. Dehydration compromises CV and thermoregulatory functions, impairs performance, and increases the risk of heat illness (e.g. heat stroke).

Delts - Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder that raise the arm away from the body and perform other functions.

Dennis Wolf - Bodybuilder known as The Big Bad Wolf.

Density - Muscle hardness, which is also related to muscu-lar definition. A bodybuilder can be well-defined and still have excess fat within each major muscle complex. But when he has muscle density, even this intramuscular fat has been eliminated. A combination of muscle mass and muscle density is highly prized among all competitive bodybuilders.

Desiccate - To dry up, removing all the water, dehydrate.

DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) - is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen and testosterone.

Dibencozide - The biologically active coenzyme of vitamin 12, necessary in the metabolism of fat, proteins and carbohydrates. Some studies have shown it to produce results in strength and size comparable to steroids.

Diet - Food and drink regularly consumed by a person, often according to specific guidelines to improve physical condition.

Dimethylglycine (DMG) - A substance originally isolated from apricot kernels. Said to increase oxygen uptake and decrease recovery time between workouts.

Dipping Bars - Parallel bars set high enough above the floor to allow you to do dips between them, leg raises for your abdominals, and a variety of other exercises. Some gyms have dipping bars which are angled inward at one end; these can be used when changing your grip width on dips.

Dip Belt - Large heavy belt worn around hips with chain at each end that can be attached to a barbell plate or dumbbell for additional resistance during certain exercises like dips.

Diuretics - Sometimes called "water pills," these are drugs and herbal preparations that remove excess water from a bodybuilder's system just prior to a show, thereby reveal-ing greater muscular detail. Harsh chemical diuretics can be quite harmful to your health, particularly if they are used on a chronic basis. Two of the side effects of excessive chemical diuretic use are muscle cramps and heart ar-rhythmias (irregular heart beats).

Dorian Yates - Nicknamed The Shadow and was a six time Mr Olympia from 1992 to 1997.

Double Split Training - Working out twice a day to allow for shorter, more intense workouts. Usually performed by advanced bodybuilders preparing for contests.

Dr. John Ziegler - The man who introduced steroids such as Dianabol into bodybuilding.

Duncan YMCA - Run by Bob Gajda and where the great Sergio Oliva trained.

Drying Out - Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting liquid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or using diuretics.

Dumbbell - Weight used for exercising consisting of rigid handle about 14" long with sometimes detachable metal discs at each end.

Dynamic Tension - Using the muscles of your own body working against other muscles in the body to provide the resistance.

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